Government and society Constitutional framework The first constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, adopted inestablished a Council of State as a collective presidency and a Council of Ministers. In particular, it stressed the development of all economic sectors, permitted private enterprise, and granted foreign investors the right to legal ownership of their capital and assets while guaranteeing that their property would not be nationalized by the state. A unicameral, popularly elected National Assembly is the supreme organ of the government.
Issue 1, Fall One of the critical elements for a culture of peace is social justice. Perceptions of injustice lead to discontent, non-cooperation, conflict, civil unrest, and war.
Religions have a powerful role in shaping ideas of social justice and legitimacy, and also in responding to perceptions of injustice and illegitimacy—e.
To maximize the potential of religions to contribute to peace and minimize those that breed war requires understanding these deep, unconscious levels of knowing and cultural formation; this is more elusive and difficult than addressing direct or even systemic forms of violence.
That religions have played a role in conflict and warfare is well known. We have only to look at current and past wars to see that even when religious differences are not a direct cause, they may play an indirect and interactive role in conflict dynamics.
If we understand why and how religions affect war or peace within and between societies, we may be better enabled to engage the strengths and transcend the limitations of religions in developing a sustainable peace. One reason that religions may have played a powerful role in history is that they often carry the archetypes, symbols, stories, and worldviews through which people shape their identity, designate their deepest questions of meaning, deal with problems of injustice and suffering, and develop codes of morality and conduct to meet the requirements of community life.
Because they function at often deep and unconscious levels, people are often unaware of the affect of religious symbols, archetypes and identity systems on their values, choices and behaviors.
Nevertheless people are often prepared to die in order to defend or uphold these symbols, meanings, and identity systems. In addition, through their extensive networks, institutions e.
In some countries religious systems are more powerful than political systems, and in others political and religious systems are intertwined. Indeed, given the importance of religion in many societies, it would be difficult to develop a culture of peace without including religions and the symbols and meanings they hold for peoples as well as the power of their networks.
To the degree that religions are part of the problem, they are also part of the solution Definitions, Terms, Approaches Before proceeding, it may be helpful to clarify how several terms are being used in this paper, and their significance to the topic. Because of wide variations among religions it is not practical to speak in the singular as if all religions were the same.
Although religions are found in every type of society, geographic region, and historical period, religious experience and practice has varied tremendously.
What is essential in some religions is absent or peripheral in others. Belief in gods or God is not universal to all religions, and, although most religions include prayer and rituals, these are not always present or central.
Despite the differences, there are some commonly shared aspects of religious experience. It has also been described as a means by which societies interpret life and develop and reinforce codes of morality and conduct in keeping with those interpretations and the requirements of community life.
And it has been defined as: This is because perceptions of injustice—real, alleged, or imagined—are often significant causes of conflict and war, and because ideas and perceptions of justice play a key role in maintaining a stable peace.
Rather than a theological or philosophical approach, this paper will consider the relationship of social justice and religion to war or peace from an operational or social-dynamics point of view.
It will draw insights from the social sciences, peace and conflict research, and systems analysis to explore how social justice and religion actually function within a social system to affect war or peace. It will approach the subject not from within a specific religion and its teachings, and not by comparing a series of specific religions, but rather by viewing religion as a generic phenomenon through which a group considers its deepest problems of meaning, suffering, and injustice in light of its beliefs and practices.
In the limited space of this paper only a few points can be presented, and these only in bare outline. Unfortunately, the necessary omission of nuanced discussion and supporting research may make complex social interactions appear simpler than they actually are. But in other works I have discussed these questions in greater detail, with reference to supporting research and historical examples.regardbouddhiste.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of regardbouddhiste.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
Students can save on their education by taking the regardbouddhiste.com online, self-paced courses and earn widely transferable college credit recommendations for a fraction of the cost of a traditional . By social system is meant a form of social, economic, political, or religious organization or practices, or patterns of human interactions and relationships.
It can also refer to the set of doctrines, ideas ideologies, or principles intended to explain the arrangement. Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and regardbouddhiste.com central tenets of conservatism include tradition, human imperfection, organic society, hierarchy and authority, and property rights.
Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as . President Thieu, who headed the People's Alliance for Social Revolution, tried to consolidate anti-Communist political organizations in the RVN through a multiparty National Social Democratic Front, but formal political organizations were weak and plagued with religious and regional sectarianism.
Despite renewed economic growth and progress on a number of social indicators in , Vietnam’s record on civil and political rights remained dismal. The court and prosecution systems in Vietnam have a structure similar to the administrative system.
In the central level, the Supreme People's Court is the highest juridical body in Vietnam and the Chief Justice is elected by the National Assembly for the term of the National Assembly.