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What specific chemicals are affected by pH, temp, O2 concentration, and solute concentration? They affect the enzymes which catalyze the metabolic reactions for growth. Distinguish between an obligate and a facultative organism. An obligate organism must have a particular condition.
A facultative organism prefers a particular condition. What are the three types of bacteria based on their optimal pH? Acidophiles are acid-loving bacteria which grow best at a pH between 0.
Neutrophiles are neutral-loving bacteria which grow best at a pH between 5. What happens to enzymes when they deviate from the pH optimum? If the pH becomes more acidic or more basic then this optimum, the protein's 3-D structure tends to change.
If the pH is significantly out of the optimum range, it completely loses that structure and flattens out; this is called a denatured protein. What are the three types of bacteria based on their temperature requirements?
Psychrophiles are cold-loving bacteria and have an optimum temperature range of degrees centigrade. These organisms grow on land or in the ocean where temperatures are extremely low.
They are also the culprits responsible for the spoilage of refrigerated foods. Mesophiles are mid temperature-loving bacteria and have an optimum temperature range of degrees centigrade. Most of the medically important pathogens are mesophiles and grow well at normal body temperature.
Thermophiles are heat-loving bacteria and have an optimum temperature range of degrees centigrade. These organisms are seen in the hot springs or geysers, among other locations in nature. Some extreme thermophiles have temperature optimums closer to degrees centigrade.
What happens to enzymes when they are out of their optimum temperature range? Just as was the case with pH, all enzymes have an optimal temperature range at which they function best.
Outside of this range, the enzymes will denature and the growth of the organisms will be affected. What specifically determines the oxygen requirements of a bacterium? Certain organisms possess the enzymes to carry out the metabolic reactions of aerobic respiration.
These chemical reactions enable the organisms to catabolize sugars such as glucose to produce energy in the form of molecules of ATP. These bacteria are known as aerobes and they must live in the presence of oxygen.
Other organisms possess the enzymes to carry out the reactions of anaerobic respiration, also known as fermentation. These organisms produce smaller quantities of ATP during the catabolism of sugar.
These bacteria are known as anaerobes; they do not require oxygen. What is an obligate aerobe? How would it be cultured in vitro?
Obligate aerobes absolutely require oxygen. These can be cultured on any medium than allows for Oxygen What is a microaerophile and how would it be cultured?
Microaerophiles need to grow in extremely limited quantities of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide, so a Candle Jar is often used for their culture.
What is an obligate anaerobe and an aerotolerant anaerobe and how would they be cultured? Obligate anaerobes grow in the complete absence of oxygen.
They do not produce enzymes such as superoxide dismutase or catalase which enable cells to elimate the toxic free radicals superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Aerotolerant anaerobes can tolerate some oxygen but will die in the presence of more than very small quantities; they still produce energy through anaerobic respiration pathways.
There are several methods of creating anaerobic conditions: What is a facultative organism? How would it be cultured? Facultatives have the ability to carry out both aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and they are known as facultatives. They produce large quantities of ATP when oxygen is available, through aerobic respiration, but can switch to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is lacking.
They can be cultured either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions What is osmosis?View Investigate factors affecting the heart regardbouddhiste.com from IB BIOLOGY HL at The University of Hong Kong. Investigate factors affecting the heart rate Sooyeon Kim Research Question: How do different.
AP BIOLOGY ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Discuss how three of the following factors might affect the physiology and/or behavior of the bombats to result in this pattern of activity. The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion.
In this experiment, four solutions (0% NaCl, 1%. In this specific experiment, there are specific factors that can affect the rate of osmosis. 1. Concentration.
The concentration of solutions (the water potential) can affect rate of osmosis as more differences between the concentrations of the solutions means a steeper concentration gradient, meaning a .
Factors affecting the rate of cooling - Sample Essay Introduction: The experiment will take place with three conical flasks with the same amount of water in each flask.
The three flasks will be different colours, which are black, silver and a clear glass. Osmosis: Potato and Sucrose Solution Essay.
Investigation of Factors Affect Osmosis in Potatoes Aim The aim of the following experiment was to investigate the effect of varying the concentration of sucrose solution on osmosis in a potato.
Preliminary Experiments One preliminary experiment was done before the main experiment. This was achieved through placing potato cores in different concentrations of sucrose (%, %, %, %, %, %, % and %) solution and to observe how much water was gained or lost through osmosis to reach a prediction of the concentration within the potato cell.