August 14, The Return of the Native I've been reading and in a few cases re-reading some of the novels of Thomas Hardy in the last few years, and you'll even find a reference to one of them, Jude the Obscure, in my book Funnybooks. The punning title of this item, about my return to what I hope will be reasonably frequent posting, is taken from one of Hardy's most famous novels, a book that I haven't read yet. I expect to remedy that omission in the near future.
Characteristics of language Definitions of language Many definitions of language have been proposed. Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated: Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts. Trager formulated the following definition: A number of considerations marked in italics below enter into a proper understanding of language as a subject: Every physiologically and mentally typical person acquires in childhood the ability to make use, as both sender and receiver, of a system of communication that comprises a circumscribed set of symbols e.
In spoken languagethis symbol set consists of noises resulting from movements of certain organs within the throat and mouth. In signed languagesthese symbols may be hand or body movements, gestures, or facial expressions. By means of these symbols, people are able to impart information, to express feelings and emotions, to influence the activities of others, and to comport themselves with varying degrees of friendliness or hostility toward persons who make use of substantially the same set of symbols.
Different systems of communication constitute different languages; the degree of difference needed to establish a different language cannot be stated exactly. No two people speak exactly alike; hence, one is able to recognize the voices of friends over the telephone and to keep distinct a number of unseen speakers in a radio broadcast.
Yet, clearly, no one would say that they speak different languages. Generally, systems of communication are recognized as different languages if they cannot be understood without specific learning by both parties, though the precise limits of mutual intelligibility are hard to draw and belong on a scale rather than on either side of a definite dividing line.
Substantially different systems of communication that may impede but do not prevent mutual comprehension are called dialects of a language. In order to describe in detail the actual different language patterns of individuals, the term idiolectmeaning the habits of expression of a single person, has been coined.
Typically, people acquire a single language initially—their first language, or native tongue, the language used by those with whom, or by whom, they are brought up from infancy. Complete mastery of two languages is designated as bilingualism ; in many cases—such as upbringing by parents using different languages at home or being raised within a multilingual community—children grow up as bilinguals.
Language, as described above, is species-specific to human beings. Other members of the animal kingdom have the ability to communicate, through vocal noises or by other means, but the most important single feature characterizing human language that is, every individual languageagainst every known mode of animal communication, is its infinite productivity and creativity.
Animal communication systems are by contrast very tightly circumscribed in what may be communicated. Indeed, displaced reference, the ability to communicate about things outside immediate temporal and spatial contiguity, which is fundamental to speech, is found elsewhere only in the so-called language of bees.
Bees are able, by carrying out various conventionalized movements referred to as bee dances in or near the hive, to indicate to others the locations and strengths of food sources. But food sources are the only known theme of this communication system. Surprisingly, however, this system, nearest to human language in function, belongs to a species remote from humanity in the animal kingdom.
On the other hand, the animal performance superficially most like human speech, the mimicry of parrots and of some other birds that have been kept in the company of humans, is wholly derivative and serves no independent communicative function. Attempts to teach sign language to chimpanzees and other apes through imitation have achieved limited success, though the interpretation of the significance of ape signing ability remains controversial.
However, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies have drawn attention to a range of other functions for language.
Among these is the use of language to express a national or local identity a common source of conflict in situations of multiethnicity around the world, such as in Belgium, Indiaand Quebec.
Language interacts with every aspect of human life in society, and it can be understood only if it is considered in relation to society. This article attempts to survey language in this light and to consider its various functions and the purposes it can and has been made to serve.
Because each language is both a working system of communication in the period and in the community wherein it is used and also the product of its history and the source of its future development, any account of language must consider it from both these points of view.
The science of language is known as linguistics. It includes what are generally distinguished as descriptive linguistics and historical linguistics.
Linguistics is now a highly technical subject; it embraces, both descriptively and historically, such major divisions as phoneticsgrammar including syntax and morphologysemanticsand pragmaticsdealing in detail with these various aspects of language. Historical attitudes toward language As is evident from the discussion above, human life in its present form would be impossible and inconceivable without the use of language.
People have long recognized the force and significance of language. Naming —applying a word to pick out and refer to a fellow human being, an animal, an object, or a class of such beings or objects—is only one part of the use of language, but it is an essential and prominent part.Pieter bruegel the fall of icarus analysis essay By | November 18, | 0.
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Mussorgsky eight essays and an epilogue for the giver. The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the world's largest and finest art museums.
Its collection includes more than two million works of art spanning five thousand years of world culture, from prehistory to the present and from every part of the globe. Introduction. Between and , Reformed Catholicism, which the Jesuits under Portuguese patronage introduced to Japan, produced a unique religious and cultural movement termed Kirishitan.
Headlong: A Novel (Bestselling Backlist) [Michael Frayn] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An unlikely con man wagers wife, wealth, and sanity in pursuit of an elusive Old Master. Invited to dinner by the boorish local landowner. Language: Language is a system of conventional spoken, manual, or written symbols by which individuals express themselves.
Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Kindheit (Begriffsklärung) aufgeführt.