The main objective of the IPCS is to carry out and disseminate evaluations of the effects of chemicals on human health and the quality of the environment.
They have been found in soil, water, sediment, plants and animal tissue in all parts of the world. They have long half-lives in the environment and many have been reported to have toxicological effects in humans.
PCBs and dioxins are man-made chemicals used by industry and their release to the environment is generally through by-products of fires and by some manufacturing processes.
Their widespread environmental occurrence means that PCBs and dioxins are present in virtually all foods, which is the main route to human exposure.
The highest concentrations are in fatty foods such as oily fish and the main sources of dioxins in the diet are meat and milk.
Levels accumulate as they move through the food chain. Control options are based on prohibiting the use of dioxins and PCBs by industry and hence their release into the environment and the EU put into force a ban on the use of most PCBs from Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are a group of compounds comprising two or more fused aromatic rings.
Many individual PAHs exist, the most simple of which is naphthalene. A variety of toxic properties have been related to PAH exposure, including the capacity to produce genotoxic and carcinogenic effects in mammals.
PAHs are found in petroleum and coal, and can also be formed by the incomplete combustion of these and other organic materials. These compounds have been detected in air, water, soil and foods.
Foods may become contaminated through direct environmental exposure, migration from packaging material or during thermal processing of food, e.
The occurrence of PAHs in fruit, vegetables and cereals is primarily due to soil and air exposure. Although levels detected in foods of animal origin tend to be low, high levels have been recorded in smoked meats and animals farmed on contaminated land.
Shellfish can accumulate PAHs from oils spilt by grounded tankers or from waste oils which have been incorrectly disposed of.
PAHs can also be formed during the heating and drying processes which allow combustion products to come into contact with the food substance.
Direct fire-drying and heating processes used during the production of food oils can result in high levels of PAHs. The complexity and number of individual PAH compounds means that it is not easy to produce specific limits for regulation of levels.
Specific foods of concern are fish which are farmed in oil contaminated waters, fats and oils including coca butter, and smoked foods. Refining processes are generally ineffective in eliminating PAHs from foods so the main control measure is to limit their production during processing and to screen out foods known to contain high levels.
Heavy metals Heavy metals are those with a high atomic mass, including, for example, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead, although other metals e.Major U.S.
Pollution-Control Statutes One of the first modern environmental protection laws enacted in the United States was the National Environmental Policy Act of (NEPA), which requires the government to consider the impact of its actions or policies on the environment.
Penetration of a substance into an organism and its cells by various processes, some specialized, some involving expenditure of energy (active transport), some involving a carrier system, and others involving passive movement down an electrochemical gradient. Start studying Chapter 10 (Environmental Science) (Test 2) Environmental Health and Toxicology.
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