An analysis of the greece as one of the ancient sophisticated nations in the universe

The story claims Atlantis was somewhere outside the Pillars of Hercules. According to Plato, the story originated with Ancient Egyptian priests.

An analysis of the greece as one of the ancient sophisticated nations in the universe

The Persian Wars Between and bc Persia was for the policy-making classes in the largest Greek states a constant preoccupation. It is not known, however, how far down the social scale this preoccupation extended in reality. Persia was never less than a subject for artistic and oratorical reference, and sometimes it actually determined foreign policy decisions.

The situation for the far more numerous smaller states of mainland Greece was different inasmuch as a distinctive policy of their own toward Persia or anybody else was hardly an option for most of the time.

But, even at this exalted moment, choice of sides, Greek or Persian, could be seen, as it was by Herodotusas having been determined either by preference for local masters or by a desire to spite an equal and rival state next door.

Nor is it obvious that for small Greek places the change to control by distant Persia would have made much day-to-day difference, judging from the experience of their kinsmen and counterparts in Anatolia or of the Jews the other articulate Persian subject nation.

Modern Western notions of religious tolerance do not apply, however. It remains true that Persia had no policy of dismantling the social structures of its subject communities or of driving their religions underground though it has been held that the Persian king Xerxes tried to impose orthodoxy in a way that compelled some Magi to emigrate.

Persia certainly had no motive for destroying the economies of the peoples in its empire. Naturally, it expected the ruling groups or individuals to guarantee payment of tribute and generally deferential behaviour, but then the Athenian and Spartan empires expected the same of their dependents.

The Athenians, at least, were strikingly realistic and undogmatic about not demanding regimes that resembled their own democracy in more than the name. The Ionian revolt But the experience of the Asiatic Greek cities was different again, because it was precisely here that the great confrontation between Greeks and Persians began, about bc.

The puzzle is to explain why the revolt happened when it did, after nearly half a century of rule by the Achaemenid Persian kings that is, since when Cyrus the Great conquered them; his main successors were Cambyses [—], Darius I [—], Xerxes I [—], Artaxerxes I [—], and Darius II [—].

Too little is known about the details of Persian rule in Anatolia during the period — to say definitely that it was not oppressive, but, as stated above, Miletus, the centre of the revolt, was flourishing in The causes of the Ionian revolt are especially hard to determine because the revolt was a short-term failure.

Concessions were made after it, however, and its longer-term consequence, the Persian Wars proper, resulted in the establishment of a strong Athenian influence in western Anatolia alongside the Persian. Defeats lead, especially in oral traditions, to recriminations: This is odd, because it is inconsistent with the whole thrust of his narrative, which regards the clash as an inevitability from a much earlier date; it is part of his general view that military monarchies like the Persian expand necessarily hence his earlier inclusion of material about, for instance, BabyloniaEgypt, and Scythia, places previously attacked by Persia.

There were always Greeks who were attracted to a Persian life-style. Causes of the Persian Wars It should now be clear that Herodotus saw the revolt in terms of the ambitions of individuals he singles out the Milesians Aristagoras and Histiaeusand this must be part of the truth.

But this must be supplemented by deeper explanations, because the rising was a very general affair. Economic factors A simple economic explanation, such as used to be fashionable, is no longer acceptable. Perhaps one should look instead for military causes: Ionians disliked the military service to which they were then compelled they did not even care much for the naval training they had to undergo, in a better cause, before Lade.


Persia not only expected personal military service but punished attempts to evade it, even at high social levels. Its method of organizing defense and of raising occasional large armies there was no large Persian standing army was analogous to the method of later feudalism: Here perhaps is a clue, which permits the resurrection of the economic explanation in another more sophisticated form.

Grants of fiefs in Anatolia are well attested in the 5th and 4th centuries; in the pages of the Greek historian Xenophon — one finds the descendants of Medizing Greek families still installed on estates granted to their ancestors after and inscriptions show the same families were still there well into the Hellenistic period.

Grants by Persia of good western Anatolian land to politically amenable Greeks, or to Iranians, made good political and military sense. Such gifts, however, were necessarily made at the expense of the poleis in whose territory the land so gifted had lain.

In this, surely, were the makings of a serious economic grievance. Political factors Politically, the Greeks did not like satrapal control. This seems clear from the proclamations of isonomia something more or less democratic is implied by this word made at the beginning of the revolt; these were perhaps influenced by very recent democratic developments back in Athens see below.

Political dislike of satrapal control is also implied by the concessions made after the revolt ended in Although there certainly were still tyrants in some Persian-held eastern Greek states insome improvement on arbitrary one-man government is surely implied.

Perhaps the answer is to be found in the formula recorded by a later literary source, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus f1.

1 The Incas Civilization

How different all this was from the situation before is beyond retrieval, but the continuity of civic structures and cults in eastern Greek states from the Archaic period to Classical times implies that in many respects the Persian takeover of was not cataclysmic. So the improvements introduced after consisted in the increase, not in the outright introduction, of local self-determination within the satrapal framework.

In any case, one is left with the problem of why political unrest boiled over, if boil over it did, in precisely A large part of the answer is to be found in the changes recently made at the Ionian mother city Athens by Cleisthenes. Local arrangements that may have seemed tolerable before the end of the century seemed less so in face of the new political order at Athens, an order that had moreover shown its military effectiveness.

Athenian support of Ionia Communication between Athens and Ionia in this period is, however, first firmly attested in the other direction, not to Ionia but from it. In the Milesian tyrant Aristagoras arrived in Athens and Sparta and perhaps at other places too, such as Argos asking for help.

The Athenians sent 20 ships.Please go into the Articles section of my website at and read the article devoted to the astronomical/ mathematical layout of the assemble a group of scientifically minded friends, conversant with surveying, construction mathematics and the cycles of the Sun and Moon, then attempt to prove my analysis is wrong.

In other words, any data that is passed from the servers of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) or of Hillary Rodham Clinton (HRC) – or any other server in the U.S. – is collected by the NSA.

Mesopotamia An overview of Mesopotamia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. This article covers the history of Mesopotamia from the prehistoric period up to the Arab conquest in the 7th century the history of the region in the succeeding periods, see Iraq, history a discussion of the religions of ancient Mesopotamia, see Mesopotamian religion. The History of Jewish Human Sacrifice. By Willie Martin. At the dawn of civilization, the blood rite, in which human blood is drunk. However, there is one possibility. Sundanese, which is spoken on Java by the Sunda Strait, was reported with 26 million speakers in and 27 million in , but Kenneth Katzner (see below) gives the population of speakers at 30 million.

The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt and India.

An analysis of the greece as one of the ancient sophisticated nations in the universe

The Greeks introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical Hippocratic Oath was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century BCE, and is a direct.

Historical Timeline 4 Million B.C.